Kidney Stones: Types, Prevention And Treatment Methods

In your kidney or urinary tract, a kidney stone is a solid mass formed of minuscule crystals

A key reason why kidney stones form is when the dissolved minerals accumulate inside the kidneys. They have the ability to enter the urinary tract, where they might create issues. Stones are rather typical and frequently run in families.

 Some kidney stones develop to the size of a golf ball, while most kidney stones are small and pass through the urinary canal undetected.

Types of Kidney Stones:

- A calcium oxalate stone is the most typical kind of kidney stone. These happen when the urine has high levels of calcium, oxalate, or uric acid but low levels of citrate. Oxalate, a chemical that is present in both plants and animals naturally, is associated with diets that are high in calcium oxalate stones. Beets, black tea, chocolate, almonds, potatoes, and spinach are a few of these.

- Struvite stones are more common in women and develop as a result of specific UTIs. These stones frequently develop rapidly and enlarge, sometimes taking up the entire kidney. If ignored, they can result in frequent, often severe urinary tract infections as well as renal function decline.

- Uric acid stones are more prevalent in men, and they are more likely to arise in persons who don't drink enough water, or who consume a lot of animal protein in their diet. In addition, persons with gout, or someone with a family history of these kidney stones, and those who have undergone chemotherapy are more prone to experience them.


Kidney stones can be prevented by opting for healthy lifestyle changes. Look out for these tips to prevent them from building up:

Drink a lot of fluids: By drinking plenty of water throughout the day, kidney stone formation can be quite effectively avoided. If you don't have liver or heart disease, it is advised that you drink 2-2.5 litres of water daily.

In addition to producing less urine, drinking less water causes your urine to become extremely concentrated, which prevents the urine salts from dissolving. Thus, they build up and result in kidney stones.

Try to consume citrus liquids like orange and lemonade. These liquids' citrate content will aid in preventing the growth of crystal stones.

Less Salt Intake: Reduce your salt (sodium) intake. Urine with high salt content may not be able to reabsorb calcium into the circulation. Kidney stones form as a result of the excessive calcium buildup in the urine as a result of this.

Try to consume less meat: High meat eating on a regular basis can raise the risk of uric acid issues and kidney stones. To reduce the risk, consume a smaller quantity of chicken and fish.

Identification and Treatment:

Kidney stone diagnosis calls for physical examinations and testing. You can have them tested by going for any one of the following:

- X-rays of the abdomen

- Your renal ultrasound (the preferred test)

- Your abdomen and kidneys will be scanned using MRI technology.

- CT (computerised tomography) scan of the abdomen

- a blood test

The type and size of the kidney stone, as well as your symptoms, determine the course of treatment. Medication, surgery, or both may be used as a form of treatment for kidney stones. To learn the best course of therapy for you, speak with your doctor. Unless they are huge and give you severe pain, kidney stones are not a major problem.

Consuming the right quantity of meals and remaining hydrated can help avoid kidney stone formation. To learn about additional underlying causes of kidney stones and how to prevent them, speak with your doctor or urologist.

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